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Court system, Etc.

Justice system, etc.

Study Law etc.

Philippine law - codes and Rules - Etc.

Political system

"The Duterte administration - The Soap opera" - Etc.

About FAKE NEWS & Photos - Duterte's trolls and propaganda machine - etc. e.g. for supporting the Duterte government

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Regions, Provinces, Administrative divisions, some Cities, Cebu Province "Special", Etc. in Luzviminda - LuzViMinda

(a portmanteau of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the names of the three major island groups - look Logo-photo in full size)

Look also The Philippine Baseline Law and Know Your Boundaries

Indicted? Charged? A guide to court jargon
by Lian Buan August 06, 2017

Understand the court process behind the highly-publicized cases in the news today.

Look also

Failure of the legal system: A challenge to Filipino lawyers
by Raymund E. Narag, PhD August 07, 2017

The Philippine legal system is a miserable failure.
It has produced lawyers who are adept in using the law to pervert the law. And I say this with so much pain because I worked with many dedicated Filipino lawyers.

GALLERY: Who are Duterte's San Beda appointees to gov't?
by Michael Bueza June 29, 2017

UPDATED From the Cabinet to the courts, many of the President's schoolmates and classmates have been appointed to key government positions.

Look also

"The Duterte administration - The Soap opera" - Etc.

'Do not be afraid to be minority': Chief Justice Sereno, 5 years on
by Lian Buan August 27, 2017 - with Video

Five years after she was appointed the first woman Chief Justice of the Philippines, Maria Lourdes Sereno is wanted impeached by two groups.

Is she a target of the Duterte administration?


House hearing on impeachment complaints vs Chief Justice Sereno

The House committee on justice reviewing the two verified impeachment complaints against Supreme Court (SC) Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno

Look also the article HERE and

CJ Sereno asks lawmakers to choose democracy over partisan interest
by Lian Buan September 13, 2017
On the impeachment complaint filed against her, the Sereno camp says, 'The determinations of the House Committee appear to be inconsistent with its findings and actions in similar proceedings in the past'

Why petitioners want Sereno impeached
by Bea Cupin September 13, 2017
There are two valid impeachment complaints against the Chief Justice before the House of Representatives.

1st impeach complaint vs Sereno sufficient in form, substance – House panel
by Bea Cupin September 13, 2017
UPDATED Thirty lawmakers deem the impeachment complaint filed by lawyer Larry Gadon sufficient in form and substance. Four voted against it.

2nd impeachment complaint vs Sereno insufficient in form
By Marc Jayson Cayabyab September 13, 2017
The House of Representatives justice committee on Wednesday found as insufficient in form the second impeachment complaint lodged against Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno.

Hague Tribunal is a popular name for any of the various international courts located in The Hague, Netherlands:
  • Permanent Court of Arbitration, a permanent arbitration court established in 1899

  • Permanent Court of International Justice (1922-44), superseded by:

  • International Court of Justice

  • International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, an ad hoc criminal tribunal created by the United Nations Security Council

  • International Criminal Court, a permanent criminal court created by the Rome Treaty

  • International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce

Look e.g. also HERE about the maritime dispute on the West Philippine Sea

International Criminal Court (ICC)

Trying individuals for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity

Look also

Duterte threatens PH withdrawal from ICC
by Pia Ranada November 17, 2016
'The International Criminal Court is useless,' says the Philippine leader, who has been called out by the ICC for possible human rights violations in his anti-drugs campaign.

Chief state counsel: ICC has no jurisdiction on EJKs in Philippines
by Katerina Francisco November 16, 2016
Chief state counsel Ricardo Paras says the International Criminal Court cannot exercise jurisdiction over extrajudicial killing cases as long as Philippine courts are open.

and HERE

EXPLAINER: Yes, Int'l Criminal Court can prosecute Duterte for killing spree
The Philippines effectively domesticated the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court when it enacted Republic Act 9851
– the commander in chief can be held liable for crimes against humanity

Part 2: EXPLAINER: Police, military officials liable for Duterte's illegal kill orders
The Rome Statute is precisely designed to demolish the wall of impunity with which state officials commit human rights violations, like the ones occurring on a virtually daily basis in our midst
Both by Perfecto Caparas, March 04, 05, 2017

Look also

US State Dept notes killings in Duterte-led Philippines
by Paterno Esmaquel II March 04, 2017
'The most significant human rights problems were killings allegedly undertaken by vigilantes, security forces, and insurgents,' the US State Department says.

Things to know about Duterte's pet peeve ICC
by Jodesz Gavilan November 24, 2016
President Rodrigo Duterte threatens to follow in the footsteps of Russian President Vladimir Putin and withdraw from the International Criminal Court.
Calling the tribunal “useless”, Duterte threatened to follow the action of his “idol” Russian President Vladimir Putin who formally withdrew his country’s signature from the founding statute of the ICC.

Look also the Video:

Matobato lawyer Jude Sabio on Duterte and the ICC
March 23, 2017
Lawyer Jude Sabio is expected to fly to the Netherlands to hold President Rodrigo Duterte accountable before the International Criminal Court over extrajudicial killings related to his war on illegal drugs.

and the article:

Planned ICC case 'not applicable' to Duterte, PH – Palace
March 11, 2017
Malacañang reiterates that the extrajudicial killings – stated as the basis for a case against the President before the tribunal – are not state-sanctioned


Martial law extension and the Supreme Court (part 1)
We analyze the recent Supreme Court decision which upheld President Duterte’s Proclamation No. 216, to discern how the Court might answer anticipated petitions in the event of an extension of martial law in Mindanao

Look also
Slippery slope of martial law (part 2)
We come to the core of the Lagman vs Medialdea martial law decision – how the Court applies the 'sufficiency of the factual basis' test

Both by Tony La Viña and Regina Ongsiako July 22, 2017

Look also HERE

Aguirre to SC: Let Luzon, Visayas courts handle Maute cases
by Lian Buan May 31, 2017

If and when cases are filed against members of the Maute terror group in connection with the crisis in Marawi City, Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II wants special courts in Luzon and Visayas – not Mindanao – to handle them. This is to protect members of the judiciary from threats.

Condemned by crowd acclamation
by Vergel O. Santos March 03, 2017

Philippine society has slid back a couple of millennia to ancient Rome's standards by which justice was dispensed according to the crowd's level of lust for blood.

A deranged mind: The insanity plea in PH cases
by Lian Buan March 26, 2017

UPDATED Has the insanity plea ever worked in a Philippine court?

Too many lawyers, not enough jurists!
by Fr Ranhilio Callangan Aquino September 11, 2016
We need more jurists in the Philippines – which is to say that we need more thoughtful people for whom law is the object of serious study, and its recondite problems, for which the lawyer may have very little time or interest
Plunder & graft trials: How do cases proceed through the courts?
by Lian Buan January 15, 2017

Some experts say it could be 10 years before the pork barrel scam cases are resolved. What exactly goes on inside the courts?

Sereno promises faster justice with e-courts
by Lian Buan January 25, 2017
The Chief Justice envisions a future where courts are fully digitized and can dispense justice in a shorter amount of time.
Philippine courts will have a more digitized system to ensure faster case resolutions, said Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno as she committed the addition of electronic courts or e-courts in various cities in the country this year.
House leaders want SolGen to go after ill-gotten wealth, oversee GOCCs
by Mara Cepeda March 27, 2017
HB 5233 also seeks to remove the Office of the Solicitor General as an attached agency of the Department of Justice and instead put it under the Office of the President.

Look also

In charge of recovering ill-gotten wealth? But Calida is pro-Marcos
by Pia Ranada March 27, 201
A House Bill seeks to make the Solicitor General in charge of the PCGG, tasked with recovering the Marcos' ill-gotten wealth. Solicitor General Jose Calida supported the vice-presidential bid of Ferdinand Marcos Jr.

and HERE

Court system - etc.

go to overview

Rules of Courts
The Judicial Branch

Judicial power rests with the Supreme Court and the lower courts, as established by law (Art. VIII, sec. 1 of the 1987 Constitution). Its duty is to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable (Art. VIII Sec. 1 (2)).
The judiciary enjoys fiscal autonomy. Its appropriation may not be reduced by the Legislature below the appropriated amount the previous year (Art. VIII, Sec. 3).

Look also Background on The Judicial System and

The Philippine Judicial System
Dean, College of Law
University of the Philippines


Philippine Judicial Branch. Uploaded on Oct 7, 2011
A simple presentation about the Judicial Branch

The Judiciary Department of the Republic of the Philippines. Oct 25, 2014

Remark this is an album in the album "The Three Branches' structure of the Government" in the album "Political system, Ect."

Portal of the Philippine Judiciary

Remark this link is often down, so try again later

The Supreme Court of the Philippines, SC

the highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort.

Look also the Videos

The CJ meets the PRESS 2016

On Thursday, August 25 2016, Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno faced journalists in a rare press conference. This is her fourth time to conduct a meet-up with the press, following the 2015, 2014 and 2013 meet-ups.

Hymn of The Supreme Court of the Philippines

Look the text of the Hymn HERE

Remark this is an album in the album "The Three Branches' structure of the Government"

Look also

Duterte threatens to jail martial law critics
by Agence France-Presse July 02, 2017
He has insisted he would ignore the findings of the Supreme Court, vowing only to listen to recommendations from the armed forces.

Duterte warns SC, CA anew not to abuse TROs
by Pia Ranada May 18, 2017
The President warns that if judges use their power to issue TROs to make money, 'there will be a time I will not honor your orders'

Sereno wary of justices ‘courtesy calls’ on Duterte
'It's a bright red line you must not cross,' Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno says of the separation of government branches.

CJ: ‘I trust President’s judgment’ in naming justices
President Rodrigo Duterte 'has already said that he is strongly against the corrupt, he is strongly against the laggards,' Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno says

Both by Paterno Esmaquel II August 25, 2016

FAST FACTS: When should SC justices inhibit from a case?
by Katerina Francisco November 08, 2016

SC Associate Justice Bienvenido Reyes recuses himself from the Marcos burial case. What rules govern the inhibition of SC magistrates on certain cases?

How did SC justices vote on major political cases?
by Michael Bueza November 12, 2016

Besides the Marcos burial and cases involving former presidents, the Supreme Court has also decided on major cases involving key politicians

Duterte’s Supreme Court
November 21, 2016

Democracy will tear to pieces if one more institution falls under the grip of the President supported of the Marcoses

The Judicial and Bar Council

a constitutionally-created body that recommends appointees for vacancies that may arise in the composition of the Supreme Court and other lower courts

Look also HERE and

EXPLAINER: How the Judicial and Bar Council works
by Jodesz Gavilan November 17, 2016
The creation of the Judicial and Bar Council, according to the late Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion, was necessary 'in attaining and preserving the independency of the judiciary'

Next 3 years 'critical test' for Judicial and Bar Council
by Jodesz Gavilan November 19, 2016
Marlon Manuel of the Hustisya Natin project says the processing of 10 appointments to the SC in the next few years will test the independence of the JBC members.

Aguirre says it's possible to establish military courts in Mindanao
by Lian Buan June 01, 2017
Martial law administrator Delfin Lorenzana says military courts will be created 'if there's a need'
Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II said on Thursday, June 1, that military courts can be established if civil courts in areas under martial law are no longer functioning.
Electoral Tribunals

The Presidential Electoral Tribunal (PET)

is an electoral tribunal that decides election protests involving the election of the President of the Philippines and Vice President of the Philippines. It is composed of justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. The equivalent tribunals for the Congress of the Philippines are House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and the Senate Electoral Tribunal.

Look also HERE, HERE, HERE and

Look RA 1793 as pdf HERE

Presidential Electoral Tribunal: What happens to a protest?
by Michael Bueza January 01, 2017
There have only been 4 election protests since 1992. None, so far, has resulted in the reversal of results for president or vice president. On average, it took close to 4 years for these protests to be resolved.
Court of Appeals of the Philippines

is the Philippines' second-highest judicial court, just after the Supreme Court. The court consists of 69 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice.

Court of Tax Appeals

is the special court of limited jurisdiction, and has the same level with the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 8 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice.

Regional Trial Court The Regional Trial Courts (RTC)

are the highest trial courts

The Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980, reorganized the lower and intermediate courts in the country, which include the change of Court of First Instance to Regional Trial Court.

The Sandiganbayan "people's advocate"
is a special appellate collegial court in the Philippines equal in rank to the Court of Appeals, and consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice.
Sandiganbayan, have jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and such other offenses committed by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, in relation to their office as may be determined by law.

Look also

Sandiganbayan pending cases at an all-time high
November 22, 2016
Since the appointment in 2011 of former Supreme Court Justice Conchita Carpio Morales as Ombudsman, her office has filed 3,733 cases with the Sandiganbayan.
Pending cases at the Sandiganbayan stand at an all-time high of 4,042.

What are the Sandiganbayan's oldest pending cases?
by Michael Bueza April 22, 2017
Among the oldest cases are the graft cases against Imelda Marcos and civil forfeiture cases against former president Ferdinand Marcos and his cronies.
Graft cases against former First Lady and current Ilocos Norte representative Imelda Marcos are among the oldest pending cases at the Sandiganbayan.
Ombudsman asks SC to strike down ‘delay’ doctrine
by Lian Buan April 01, 2017
The Office of the Ombudsman says the anti-graft court Sandiganbayan's interpretation of the 'delay' doctrine is confusing and risks letting corrupt officials go unscathed
Overview of the Philippine Judicial System
by/Daniel Jose Empleo, 13 April 2015

Full transcript

Courts for Muslims

A Primer on The Philippine Shari’a Courts

Look also HERE

Justice system - etc.

go to overview

Department of Justice (DOJ)
Youth group seeks penalty for 'fake news king' Aguirre
July 05, 2017 By Keith A. Calayag

A GROUP composed of youths, student leaders, netizens and other concerned citizens filed Wednesday, July 5, before the Office of the Ombudsman an administrative complaint for breach of the code of ethical conduct against Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II.

Look also the Video:
Aguirre, inireklamo ng 'millennials' sa pagpapakalat ng fake news
Published on Jul 5, 2017
Naghain ng ethics complaint sa Ombudsman ang isang grupo ng kabataan laban kay Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre na binansagan nilang 'hari ng pekeng balita'. Tumanggi naman munang magkomento si Aguirre habang hindi pa niya nababasa ang buong reklamo.

The Office of the Solicitor General

the law firm of the Republic of the Philippines. It is tasked to represent the People of the Philippines, the Philippine Government, its Agencies and Instrumentalities, Officials and Agents especially before appellate courts in any litigation or matter requiring the services of a lawyer. It is an independent and autonomous office attached to the Department of Justice for budgetary purposes.

Look also Get to know the Solicitor General
by/ Gerard Lim January 11, 2016
The Office of the Solicitor General – recently in the headlines for refusing to represent the Comelec – is the nation’s chief attorney. Know more about this office.

Public Attorney's Office - POA

provides indigent litigants free legal assistance.

Human Rights Violations Victims' Claims Board

Created under RA 10368 Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013, it is a quasi-judicial body which will adjudicate eligibility of martial law HRVs claims

Look also HERE

Bureau of Corrections BuCor or BC

Look also HERE

Parole and Probation Administration

provides a less costly alternative to imprisonment of offenders who are likely to respond to individualized community based treatment programs.

Ombudsman of the Philippines
also known as Tanodbayan ng Pilipinas (using Filipino loan words), is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting Philippine government officials accused of crimes, especially graft and corruption.

the protectors of the people shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against officers or employees of the Government, or of any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and enforce their administrative, civil and criminal liability in every case where the evidence warrants in order to promote efficient service by the Government to the people
The Office of the Ombudsman is independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption

Look also

SC junks disbarment case vs Ombudsman Morales
by Lian Buan March 28, 2017
UPDATED The High Court affirms that the Ombudsman cannot be disbarred while she's still holding office

Can the Ombudsman be disbarred?
by Lian Buan March 24, 2017
The SC has issued several rulings which state that the Ombudsman has to be impeached and convicted first, before he or she can be made to answer for any other violations.

Ombudsman cases vs gov't officials up by 267% in 2016
January 29, 2017
The top offense is violation of Republic Act 3019 or the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (402 cases), followed by malversation of public funds (390 cases), violation of presidential decrees (112 cases), and falsification of public documents (72 cases).

the Videos:
What is the Ombudsman's office?
One year practice na lang gikinahanglan sa mga ombud lawyers

Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP)

Philippine Bar Association Inc. (BPA)

the national organization of lawyers in the Philippines. It is the mandatory bar association for Filipino lawyers.

Look also HERE and the Facebook
IBP: Duterte's criticism of lawyers defending drug suspects 'dangerous'
December 09, 2016

The Integrated Bar of the Philippines says Duterte's statements criticizing lawyers of drug suspects creates a dangerous 'chilling effect'


Criminal Justice System in the Philippines
Feb 11, 2014

a live telecast designed to provide viewers relevant information on the inner workings of law enforcement and a better understanding of police procedures hosted by former Commissioner of Human Rights Atty. Wilhem Dabu Soriano and retired police General Lucas Malillin Managuelod.

Remark this is an album in the album "The Three Branches' structure of the Government"

Study Law etc.

Look also Education

go to overview

Philippine Judicial Academy

a separate but component unit of the Supreme Court, has become an all-important factor in the promotion of judicial education in the Philippines.

Remark this link is often down, so try again later, but look also An Introduction to the Philippine Judicial Academy

and the Video in the album "Philippine Judicial Academy, PHILJA":

PHILJA Lecture - Cybersecurity
May 8, 2017
CYBERSECURITY: The Spectre of Crime and Evolving Challenges to the Bench and Bar

Top Performing Law Schools in the Philippines

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) revealed the top performing law schools in the Philippines for the past 10 years based on bar exams passing rate.
San Beda College (SBC)

is a Private Benedictine college run by the Benedictine monks in the Philippines. It is located at Mendiola Street in San Miguel, Manila.

Look also HERE and the Videos

San Beda College Audio Visual Presentation 2009


San Beda Hymn

Herald the Bedans coming... The Bedan Hymn was written by the late Senator Raul S. Roco and was set to music by a Benedictine monk and prolific composer and pianist, Fr. Manuel Maramba, OSB. The SATB arrangement featured in this video was made by Ali Izon, a music teacher at San Beda College Alabang.

The Arellano University School of Law (AUSL)
Bulacan State University (BulSU)

is a state-funded institution of higher learning established in 1904 and converted into a university in 1993. The University in mandated to provide higher professional/technical and special instruction for special purpose and to promote research and extension services, advanced studies and extension services, advanced studies and progressive leadership in Engineering, Architecture, Education, Art and Science, Fine Arts, Information Technology, Technical courses, Commerce, Agriculture, Forestry, Medicine, Law, Public Administration, Fishery, Leather Technology and other course as circumstance warrants.

Institute for Freedom of Information - FOI


Law Philippines This website offers free and easy-to-access reading and video materials on Philippine law, Philippine jurisprudence, legal principles, Supreme Court doctrines, and the latest updates and trends in law schools and bar exams. This was specially created for lawyers, law students and bar examinees who wish to review over the Internet and at the comfort of their homes.

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